Spinning down a Harddrive

I wanted to spin down a hard drive before disconnecting. I have an external hard drive and even after I unmounted the drive the disks were still spinning.

Find the device label of the mounted drive:

$ lsblk
NAME   MAJ:MIN RM SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT
sda    253:0    0  20G …
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List User Installed Packages

I started thinking about doing a fresh linux install and was worried that I might not remember all the packages that I had manually installed. A quick search revealed a one-liner that compares the currently installed packages to the list of packages that were available initially to produce a nice …

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Configure pulseaudio output via command line

Changing the currently active audio output

List available audio devices

First, list all the available output devices like so:

pacmd list-cards

Or similarly:

pactl list cards

Card Index

Index of the card is found in the first couple lines:

$ pacmd list-cards
Welcome to PulseAudio! Use "help" for usage information.
>>> 1 …
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Extension ram files

I was helping my girlfriend watch some videos that she needed for a class that she was having trouble playing on her mac. Once I saw that ubuntu wasn't able to play them out of the box I looked at the extension and found a solution on ubuntu forums.

The …

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